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"Por mais soberana que a a minha mente se torne, o meu coração será para sempre vagabundo"


When the body says no II


""I cannot understand why I have cancer," one womam with ovarian cancer said. "I've led a healthy life, eaten well, exercised regularly. I've always taken good care of myself. If anyone should be a picture of health, it's me." The area she overlooked was invisible to her: the stress connected with emotional repression. Her conscientious (and conscious) best efforts to look after herself properly could not extend to an area she did not know existed. (...)If we gain the ability to look into ourselves with honesty, compassion and unclouded vision, we can identify the ways we need to take care of ourselves. We can see the areas of the self formerly hidden in the dark. 

 The potential of wholeness, for health, resides in all of us, as does the potential for illness and disharmony. Disease is disharmony. More accurately, it is an expression of internal disharmony. If illness is seen as foreign and external, we may end up waging a war agains ourselves.

 The first step in retracing our way to health is to abandon our attachment to what we called positive thinking. Too many times in the course of palliative care work I sat with dejected people who expressed their bewilderment at having developed cancer. "I have always been a positive thinker", one man in his late forties told me. "I have never given in to pessimistic thoughts. Why should I get cancer?".

(...) Compulsive optimist is one of the ways we bind our anxiety to avoid confronting it. (...) Rather, is it a willingness to consider what is not working. What is not in balance? What have I ignored? What is my body saying no to? Without these questions, the stresses responsible for our lack of balance will remain hidden."


When the body says no


"The Vancouver oncologist Karen Gelmon does not favour the war metaphors often applied to cancer. "The idea is that with enough might you can control, with enough might you can expel," she says. "It suggests that it's all a battle. I don't think that's a helpful way of looking at it. First, it's not valid physiologically. Second, I don't think it's healthy psychologically.

 "What happens with our body is a matter of flow - there is input and there is output, an you can't control every aspect of it. We need to understand that flow, know there are things you can influence and things you can't. It's not a battle, it's a push-pull phenomenon of finding balance and harmony, of keading the conflicting forces all into one dough." What we might call the miliatary theory of disease, sees illness as a hostile force, something foreign that the organism must battle and defeat. Such view leaves an important question unanswered 


No disease has a single cause. Even where significant risks can be identified - such as biological heredity in some autoimmune diseases or smoking in lung cancer - these vulnerabilities do not exist in isolation. Personality also does not by itself cause disease: one does not get cancer simply for repressing anger os ALS just from being too nice. A systems model recognizes that many processes and factors work together in the formation of disease or in the creation of health. We have demonstrated in this book a biopsychosocial model of medicine. According to the biopsychosocial view, individual biology reflects the history of a human organism in lifelong interaction with an enviroment, a perpetual interchange of energt in thich psychological and social factors are as vital as physical ones. As Dr. Gelmonn suggests, healing is a phenomenon of finding balance and harmony.

 We cannot remind ourselves too often that the word healing derives from an ancient origin, meaning "whole" - hence our equation of wholesome and healthy. To heal is to become whole. But how can we be more whole than we already are? Or how is it that we could ever be less than whole? 

 That which is complete may become deficient in two possible ways: something could be subtracted from it, or its internal harmony could be so perturbed that the parts that worked togehter no longer do so. As we have seen, stress is a disturbance of the body's internal balance in response to perceived threat, including the threat of some essential need being denied. Physical hunger may be one such deprivation, but in our society the threat is most often psychic, such as the withdrawal of emotional nourishment or the disruption of psychological harmony". 




Auto estima


"Realize that the only approval you should be worried about is your own - and that the potential for rejection actually starts with you. If you don't fully respect and approve of yourself, you project an image to others that says "I am not worthy, I am not good enough for you", which can result in the very rejection you fear."


"Estamos a destruir a expetativa"


"Aquilo que estes autores vêm dizer é que se calhar não é bem assim como estávamos a pensar e se calhar muito do prazer que temos com o consumir de substâncias como o álcool não tem a ver com o gostar, não tem a ver com o consumir, mas tem a ver com o pensar em consumir, tem a ver com o desejo, com a expectativa (gostar é diferente de desejar). O que eles verificaram é que partindo do primeiro consumo, a nossa parte do gostar em termos do prazer vai diminuindo, ou seja, através de fenómenos de tolerância, quando repetimos os consumos, o gostar vai diminuindo. O que vai aumentando é o processo de condicionamento e a expectativa. Isto quer dizer que provavelmente todas estas áreas são estimuladas quando o paciente alcoólico caminha para o bar e sabe que vai beber, ou quando o toxicodependente prepara o garrote para se injectar, mais do que a própria substância no organismo. Por exemplo, acontece-vos isso quando combinam algo com os vossos colegas, e a expectativa da própria festa que vocês têm programada vos deu mais gozo do que quando estiveram lá. Este é o poder da expectativa. Nós em termos de sociedade de consumo, pensem nisto, estamos a destruir a expectativa. Hoje ninguém tem paciência para esperar, porque querem é ter as coisas logo. Ao destruir a expectativa estamos a destruir o prazer. Estamos a evoluir e transformar a sociedade através do paradigma do consumo toxicodependente, que é o mínimo custo e o máximo do benefício em termos do prazer. Mínimo custo que é adquirir a substância e o prazer máximo. É o esforço de obter que dá o prazer, dizem estes autores, e se eles estiverem correctos, nós estamos gradualmente e a passos largos a destruir a nossa capacidade de sentir prazer."


(retirado das desgravadas das aulas de ISM, 3º ano FMUL, Prof. Dr. Samuel Pombo)
gráfico: The neural basis of drug craving: an incentive sensitiation theory of addiction. Robinson  T., Berridge, K. Brain Research Reviews, I8 (1993) 247-291




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